NREL - National Renewable Energy Laboratory

About WILD

WILD is a searchable and browseable collection of documents and document descriptions that has historically focused on the effects of land-based wind energy development and power lines on birds. The collection is continually updated and maintained by a National Wind Technology Center staff member at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Every effort is made to include all subject-related materials. Please contact us to provide suggestions.


In recent years, WILD has expanded in scope to include the impact on all wildlife from a variety of technologies including:

  • Offshore wind
  • Small wind turbines
  • Power lines
  • Towers (e.g. communication and television)
  • Marine Energy (e.g., ocean current, ocean thermal energy conversion, tidal, and wave)

The collection includes a variety of document types including:

  • Journal articles
  • Conference papers
  • Government reports
  • Consultant reports
  • Environmental impact studies
  • Book chapters
  • Books
  • Theses/dissertations
  • Patents

Full Text Availability

Much of the material included in WILD is protected by copyright and may not be freely available online. NREL cannot provide full text access to this material but every effort is made to direct the user to the original published source. Users with university or institutional access may be able to read the full text of at least some of these sources seamlessly, depending on the kind of access their institutions have purchased. For users without this kind of access, linking back to the original published source will facilitate access either through a purchase or interlibrary loan. Examples of materials covered by copyright include journal articles, conference proceedings, books, and book chapters.

Some materials are covered by copyright BUT are still freely available online. In those cases, the collection will link to the full text. Examples of freely available materials covered by copyright include Open Access articles and theses/dissertations.

Generally, government publications are not copyrighted and can be freely distributed. Collection records for government-type publications will usually include a link back to the original source as well as provide the option to download the full text of the document from directly within WILD.

Origins of WILD

WILD (formerly known as the Avian Literature Database) was created in 1997. Early records were drawn from two California Energy Commission bibliographies:

  • Avian Collision and Electrocution: An Annotated Bibliography (1995)
  • Effects of Wind Energy Development: An Annotated Bibliography (1996)


National Renewable Energy Laboratory
National Wind Technology Center Library
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MS 3811
Golden, CO 80401